The Shadow Politics of Shadow Education
By ANDREW FINKEL
ISTANBUL — “Shadow education” is academic jargon for the way ordinary people bypass the failings of the formal school system by enlisting their children in special programs on the side. In Turkey, the practice is so widespread it has spawned a multibillion-dollar industry of private tutorial colleges that help students cram for highly competitive high-school and university entrance exams. Nearly 1.3 million children in Turkey are enrolled in more than 3,800 tutorial colleges.
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